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Old 10-23-2014, 02:05 AM
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Clinical Diabetes | Mobile

"Oxidative stress may also play an important role in cellular injury from hyperglycemia. High glucose levels can stimulate free radical production and reactive oxygen species formation. Animal studies have suggested that treatment with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, may attenuate some vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes, but treatment with antioxidants has not yet been shown to alter the development or progression of retinopathy or other microvascular complications of diabetes."

"The central pathological mechanism in macrovascular disease is the process of atherosclerosis, which leads to narrowing of arterial walls throughout the body. Atherosclerosis is thought to result from chronic inflammation and injury to the arterial wall in the peripheral or coronary vascular system. In response to endothelial injury and inflammation, oxidized lipids from LDL particles accumulate in the endothelial wall of arteries. Angiotensin II may promote the oxidation of such particles. Monocytes then infiltrate the arterial wall and differentiate into macrophages, which accumulate oxidized lipids to form foam cells. Once formed, foam cells stimulate macrophage proliferation and attraction of T-lymphocytes. T-lymphocytes, in turn, induce smooth muscle proliferation in the arterial walls and collagen accumulation. The net result of the process is the formation of a lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesion with a fibrous cap. Rupture of this lesion leads to acute vascular infarction."
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