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Taking extra aminos seperatly??

Gunsmith

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Just wondering if any of you guys take extra amino acides seperatly , like a couple extra grams of Taurine or Arginine a day?
 

knucklehed

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True Proteins BCAA Plus

2 scoops every morning with cardio: like DC suggests

True Protein | High Quality Nutrition and Protein Supplements

Serving Size: 15g
Servings Per Container: 90

The Formula:

15g Serving
90 servings per container

4g Ajinomoto L-Leucine
3g Ajinomoto L-Glutamine
2g Ajinomoto L-Valine
2g Ajinomoto L-Isoleucine
1g Citrulline Malate
10mg Vitamin B-6
 

driven

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Because of my unique diet, I always supplement 15-20 g bcaa and 15-20 g eaa's. Really aids in recovery. I've never used taurine. As for arginine, I use it pretty rarely and usually when my recovery rate has noticeably slowed.
 

doc

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10 grams leucine and 10 grams arginine post workout
10 grams Glutamine right before bed

also 3 grams of L-Carnitine whenever I take insulin
 
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dragonfire101

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10 grams leucine PWO

10gm L Taurine ED wherever I can fit it in for its Cardiovascular benefits.
 

BigJB

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what benifit does Taurine have for cardiovascular
If you're like me and get low back pumps during longer stints of cardio, then thats where extra taurine helps a bunch.
 

dragonfire101

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what benifit does Taurine have for cardiovascular
In general terms I think it helps with blood pressure for the most part and cramps via sodium/potassium pump ATP, which regulates balance between cells and the extra cellular fluid. Lower blood pressure and stable/balanced extra cellular fluid = better heart function.


Here is a decent article explaining various possible benefits of L-taurine that sites references. Saves me time looking up the studies and trying to explain the scientific stuff in detail.

L-Taurine:
by David Tolson

Introduction

Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is the most abundant free amino acid in many tissues. Taurine is different than most other amino acids because it is not incorporated into proteins, but it does play many roles in the body, including bile acid conjugation, detoxification, membrane stabilization, osmoregulation, and modulation of excitatory neurotransmission and intracellular calcium levels. The mean taurine intake in humans is estimated to be around 60 mg daily, but supplementation can far exceed this amount and readily increases taurine levels in many tissues. This article will briefly cover some of the many possible utilities of taurine supplementation.

Exercise

Exercise causes a significant reduction of taurine levels in skeletal muscle, as does aging [1-3]. In these conditions, supplemental taurine improves exercise performance and electrical and contractile properties of skeletal muscle in rodents, respectively [1, 3]. In healthy rats, taurine increased running time to exhaustion from 73.8 minutes to 98.8 minutes. Additionally, the weights of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were increased, but the difference was not statistically significant [1]. A beverage containing taurine, caffeine, and simple carbs increases endurance performance in humans, and a significant portion of these effects is due to the taurine alone [1, 4]. However, it has not been established if it was due to a synergistic relationship, as taurine-only studies have not yet been conducted in humans. Taurine also counteracts exercise-induced weakness in a mouse model of dystrophy, and is superior to creatine in this regard [5], and it protects muscle tissue from ischemia-reperfusion injury [6]. Among the postulated mechanisms of action are membrane stabilization and modulation of ion channels or calcium ion storage capacity [1, 3-4], although there could be a wide variety of reasons for this effect (such as osmoregulation).

Cardiac health

The concentrations of taurine in the heart are very high, and it constitutes over 50% of the total free amino acid pool [7]. Among the multiple roles it plays are protecting from excessive or inadequate intracellular calcium, acting as a membrane stabilizer, and protecting from injury and oxidative stress [7-8]. Although the taurine content in the heart is tightly regulated and not as subject to deprivation as many other tissues, chronic taurine depletion can result in severe cardiomyopathy [8]. Certain conditions, such as congestive heart failure, can cause a disruption of taurine homeostasis. In a trial with 14 patients with congestive heart failure, 6 grams per day of taurine lowered the heart-failure score from 5.8 to 3.7 where no benefit was seen in the placebo group, and in an animal model of congestive heart failure, 100 mg/kg of taurine reduced mortality from 52% to 11% [7]. Both in vivo and in vitro, taurine protects the heart from ischemic damage by acting as an antioxidant and membrane stabilizer [8, 9]. Taurine also reduces arrhythmias induced by chemicals or ischemia [7, 9]. Finally, taurine administration improved heart function in rats submitted to a high stress load (forced swimming) [10].

Hypertension

Commonly used animal models for hypertension include the spontaneously hypertensive rat, the DOCA-salt rat, the salt sensitive Dahl-S rat, and the renovascular hypertensive rat, and taurine alleviates hypertension in all of these models. Taurine also prevents hypertension in rats fed a high fructose diet and rats treated with alcohol. In humans with hypertension, 6 grams of taurine daily resulted in significant reductions in blood pressure, and this was independently verified in two other studies, one of them with only 3 g of taurine. Taurine does not cause a reduction in blood pressure in normotensive humans, indicating that the mechanism of action is specific to the pathology. Both effects in the CNS and modulation of hormone levels are involved [11].

Atherosclerosis

Taurine has a beneficial effect on a number of markers of atherosclerosis, and reduces the development of atherosclerosis in animals. Animal models in which taurine has improved cholesterol levels (by reducing LDL or total cholesterol or increasing HDL cholesterol) include spontaneously hyperlipidaemic mice, rats and rabbits fed high cholesterol diets, genetic type 2 diabetic GK rats, and normal rats [12-15]. In a single-blind placebo-controlled study with healthy individuals fed a diet designed to raise cholesterol levels, 6 g daily of taurine reduced total and LDL cholesterol levels [7]. The reduction of cholesterol levels is due to increased bile acid conjugation and antioxidant effects [7, 12-14]. Additionally, taurine prevents stress on the endoplasmic reticulum induced by homocysteine [16] and improves endothelial function in young cigarette smokers, having a greater effect than vitamin C [17-18].

Neuroprotection

The brain is another area where taurine is particularly important. Taurine plays an essential role in both brain development and regeneration and promotes the survival and proliferation of neurons [19]. Additionally, supplemental taurine exerts a definite pharmacological effect in the brain [20]. Taurine is a potent neuroprotectant, protecting against glutamate excitotoxicity, cerebral ischemia, oxidative stress, and the buildup of toxins (including carbon tetrachloride and ammonia) [21-25]. Among other things, this neuroprotection is due to regulation of calcium homeostasis and apoptosis, direct scavenging of toxins, and a reduction of oxidative stress [23-26]. Taurine also holds promise as an anticonvulsant and in the prevention of epilepsy [7, 27-28].

Memory

Taurine plays an important role in long-term potentiation. Taurine improves memory in mice treated with a variety of amnestic agents, such as pentobarbital, cycloheximide, sodium nitrite, and alcohol. However, it does not improve memory in healthy, untreated mice [29]. Taurine also imrpoves memory in rats exposed to ozone [30]. Taurine increases brain levels of acetylcholine in animals, and decreased levels of taurine have been found in Alzheimer's patients [7]. It is yet to be seen whether taurine improves memory in humans, but it is likely to have an effect at least in individuals with impaired memory.

Diabetes & insulin sensitivity

When administered to mice receiving a glucose infusion for six hours, taurine inhibited the development of insulin resistance, which occured primarily in skeletal muscle [31]. Taurine also inhibited hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats [32]. For this and other reasons, taurine holds promise in the treatment of diabetes. In diabetic subjects, the amount of arachidonic acid required to induce platelet aggregation is lower, and taurine reduces this effect [7]. Furthermore, taurine improves kidney function in animal models of diabetes [59-60]. In addition to antioxidant mechanisms, taurine may also exert these benefits by increasing the excretion of nitrite and the formation of kinins [32].

Cystic fibrosis

Taurine can aid in the treatment of cystic fibrosis in two ways. The first is by inhibiting nutrient malabsorption – a double-blind study found that 30 mg/kg daily helped alleviate steatorrhea in children with cystic fibrosis [7]. Taurine supplementation also helps maintain taurine levels in the lung, and along with niacin taurine reduced lung injury and fibrosis in a mouse model [33]. Taurine also protects the lungs from oxidative stress due to ozone exposure [34].

Eye health

The retina is another area where taurine is found in particularly high concentrations, although its role there is not well established. Visual dysfunction in both humans and animals has been linked with taurine deficiency that can be reversed with supplementation [35]. Along with diltiazem and vitamin E, taurine helped reduce the progressive visual field reduction caused by retinitis pigmentosa, but as monotherapy results have not been clinically significant [7, 36]. Taurine also inhibits oxidative stress in cataractous lenses [37] and protects from retinal abnormalities due to diabetes in rat models, proving more effective on various levels than vitamin E and selenium [38-39].

Heavy metals & toxins

Taurine protects many of the body's organs against toxicity and oxidative stress due to various substances. Taurine neutralizes the toxin hypochlorous acid, thus protecting from DNA damage [7]. In the liver, taurine inhibits the toxic effects of high fructose feeding, alcohol, acetaminophen, and thioacetamide in rats; taurine also improves some markers in patients with hepatitis [7; 40-43]. In the kidneys, taurine protects against cisplatin toxicity and prevents renal damage from salt feeding in salt-sensitive rats [44-45]. Taurine also protects against ulcers caused by monochloramine, a toxin associated with H. pylori infection [46]. Accumulation of heavy metals can have a variety of toxic effects, and taurine reduces the damage caused by excess levels cadmium, copper, and lead in rats [47-49]. Taurine also reduces the toxic effect of oxidized fish oil in rats [50].

Skin health

In vitro, taurine improves recovery from burn injured skin, and a topical taurine gel accelerates wound healing in mice [51-52]. As an osmolyte, taurine helps maintain hydration in the epidermis when it is exposed to a dry environment [53], but the effect of oral taurine supplementation on skin hydration and healing has not been determined.

General health & life extension

Aging is associated with a decline in taurine content in various tissues, including liver, kidney, cerebellum, eye, spleen, blood, and skeletal muscle, and dietary supplementation with taurine can increase the taurine content to levels even above those of healthy adults [3, 54-55]. Taurine supplementation also reduces the elevated protein carbonyl levels associated with aging, aids in the restoration of protein and acid-soluble thiols in aged rats, blunts the age-related decline of IGF-1, and aids in the retention of antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin E and vitamin A [54-57].


References

1. J Orthop Sci. 2003;8(3):415-9. Effects of taurine administration in rat skeletal muscles on exercise. Yatabe Y, Miyakawa S, Miyazaki T, Matsuzaki Y, Ochiai N.
2. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 May;34(5):793-7. Decreased taurine concentration in skeletal muscles after exercise for various durations. Matsuzaki Y, Miyazaki T, Miyakawa S, Bouscarel B, Ikegami T, Tanaka N.
3. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep;286(3):1183-90. Chronic administration of taurine to aged rats improves the electrical and contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers. Pierno S, De Luca A, Camerino C, Huxtable RJ, Camerino DC.
4. Amino Acids. 2001;20(1):75-82. The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography. Baum M, Weiss M.
5. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jan;304(1):453-63. Enhanced dystrophic progression in mdx mice by exercise and beneficial effects of taurine and insulin-like growth factor-1. De Luca A, Pierno S, Liantonio A, Cetrone M, Camerino C, Fraysse B, Mirabella M, Servidei S, Ruegg UT, Conte Camerino D.
6. Eur J Surg. 2000 May;166(5):375-9. Taurine protects against early and late skeletal muscle dysfunction secondary to ischaemia reperfusion injury. McLaughlin R, Bowler D, Kelly CJ, Kay E, Bouchier-Hayes D.
7. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Apr;3(2):128-36. Therapeutic applications of taurine. Birdsall TC.
8. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2003 May;41(5):726-33. Taurine renders the cell resistant to ischemia-induced injury in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Takahashi K, Ohyabu Y, Takahashi K, Solodushko V, Takatani T, Itoh T, Schaffer SW, Azuma J.
9. Arzneimittelforschung. 1998 Apr;48(4):360-4. Protective effects of taurine against reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in isolated ischemic rat heart. Chahine R, Feng J.
10. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2002 Summer;87(1-3):171-82. Cardiac functions and taurine's actions at different extracellular calcium concentrations in forced swimming stress-loaded rats. Satoh H, Nakatani T, Tanaka T, Haga S.
11. Amino Acids. 2002;23(4):381-93. Treatment of hypertension with oral taurine: experimental and clinical studies. Militante JD, Lombardini JB.
12. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Aug;66(8):1755-8. Improving effect of dietary taurine supplementation on the oxidative stress and lipid levels in the plasma, liver and aorta of rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Balkan J, Kanbagli O, Hatipoglu A, Kucuk M, Cevikbas U, Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M.
13. Amino Acids. 2002;23(4):433-9. Dietary taurine enhances cholesterol degradation and reduces serum and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Yokogoshi H, Oda H.
14. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003 Apr;30(4):295-9. Effects of taurine on serum cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerosis in spontaneously hyperlipidaemic mice. Matsushima Y, Sekine T, Kondo Y, Sakurai T, Kameo K, Tachibana M, Murakami S.
15. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002 Dec;48(6):483-90. The effect of taurine on plasma cholesterol concentration in genetic type 2 diabetic GK rats. Nishimura N, Umeda C, Ona H, Yokogoshi H.
16. Circulation. 2001 Sep 4;104(10):1165-70. Taurine prevents the decrease in expression and secretion of extracellular superoxide dismutase induced by homocysteine: amelioration of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress by taurine. Nonaka H, Tsujino T, Watari Y, Emoto N, Yokoyama M.
17. Circulation. 2003 Jan 28;107(3):410-5. Taurine and vitamin C modify monocyte and endothelial dysfunction in young smokers. Fennessy FM, Moneley DS, Wang JH, Kelly CJ, Bouchier-Hayes DJ.
18. J Surg Res. 2003 Oct;114(2):298-9. Taurine supplementation reverses endothelial cell dysfunction and promotes mobilisation of endothelial progenitor cells. Moloney MA, Kelly JJ, Condron CM, Roche-Nagle G, O'Donnell DH, Fennessy FM, Bouchier-Hayes DJ.
19. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(6):439-43. Taurine as a micronutrient in development and regeneration of the central nervous system. Lima L, Obregon F, Cubillos S, Fazzino F, Jaimes I.
20. Salimaki J, Scriba G, Piepponen TP, Rautolahti N, Ahtee L. The effects of systemically administered taurine and N-pivaloyltaurine on striatal extracellular dopamine and taurine in freely moving rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003 Aug;368(2):134-41. Epub 2003 Jul 26.
21. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2001 Feb;109(1):90-4. Taurine protects against carbon tetrachloride toxicity in the cultured neurons and in vivo. Vohra BP, Hui X.
22. Int J Neurosci. 2001 Aug;108(1-2):55-67. Taurine increases rat survival and reduces striatal damage caused by 3-nitropropionic acid. Rivas-Arancibia S, Rodriguez AI, Zigova T, Willing AE, Brown WD, Cahill DW, Sanberg PR.
23. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 May 2;468(1):21-5. Taurine reduces ammonia- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced accumulation of cyclic GMP and hydroxyl radicals in microdialysates of the rat striatum. Hilgier W, Anderzhanova E, Oja SS, Saransaari P, Albrecht J.
24. Acupunct Electrother Res. 2002;27(2):129-36. Effect of taurine in combination with electroacupuncture on neuronal damage following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Guo J, Li R, Zhao P, Cheng J.
25. Brain Res. 2003 Jul 11;977(2):290-3. Changes in the striatal extracellular levels of dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid evoked by ammonia and N-methyl-D-aspartate: modulation by taurine. Anderzhanova E, Oja SS, Saransaari P, Albrecht J.
26. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;526:527-36. Taurine regulates mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. El Idrissi A, Trenkner E.
27. Epilepsia. 2003 Sep;44(9):1145-52. Effects of taurine and glycine on epileptiform activity induced by removal of mg2+ in combined rat entorhinal cortex-hippocampal slices. Kirchner A, Breustedt J, Rosche B, Heinemann UF, Schmieden V.
28. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;526:515-25. Prevention of epileptic seizures by taurine. El Idrissi A, Messing J, Scalia J, Trenkner E.
29. Neural Plast. 2000;7(4):245-59. Improvement of impaired memory in mice by taurine. Vohra BP, Hui X.
30. Environ Res. 2000 Jan;82(1):7-17. Effects of taurine on ozone-induced memory deficits and lipid peroxidation levels in brains of young, mature, and old rats. Rivas-Arancibia S, Dorado-Martinez C, Borgonio-Perez G, Hiriart-Urdanivia M, Verdugo-Diaz L, Duran-Vazquez A, Colin-Baranque L, Avila-Costa MR.
31. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Oct;285(4):E744-53. Epub 2003 Jun 10. N-acetylcysteine and taurine prevent hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance in vivo: possible role of oxidative stress. Haber CA, Lam TK, Yu Z, Gupta N, Goh T, Bogdanovic E, Giacca A, Fantus IG.
32. Amino Acids. 2002;22(1):27-38. Taurine modulates kallikrein activity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant rats. Nandhini AT, Anuradha CV.
33. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Apr;293(1):82-90. Taurine and niacin block lung injury and fibrosis by down-regulating bleomycin-induced activation of transcription nuclear factor-kappaB in mice. Gurujeyalakshmi G, Wang Y, Giri SN.
34. Exp Lung Res. 1998 Sep-Oct;24(5):659-74. Taurine protects rat bronchioles from acute ozone exposure: a freeze fracture and electron microscopic study. Gordon RE, Park E, Laskin D, Schuller-Levis GB.
35. Nutr Neurosci. 2002 Apr;5(2):75-90. Taurine: evidence of physiological function in the retina. Militante JD, Lombardini JB.
36. Metab Brain Dis. 2002 Sep;17(3):183-97. Treatment with taurine, diltiazem, and vitamin E retards the progressive visual field reduction in retinitis pigmentosa: a 3-year follow-up study. Pasantes-Morales H, Quiroz H, Quesada O.
37. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2002 Mar;38(3):157-60. [The role of taurine as hydroxyl radical inhibitor and its effect on lipid peroxidation in selenite cataract] [Article in Chinese] Zhang W, Chen C, Dong B, Lu D, Chen D.
38. Free Radic Res. 2003 Mar;37(3):323-30. Potential therapeutic effect of antioxidants in experimental diabetic retina: a comparison between chronic taurine and vitamin E plus selenium supplementations. Di Leo MA, Ghirlanda G, Gentiloni Silveri N, Giardina B, Franconi F, Santini SA.
39. Amino Acids. 2002;23(4):401-6. Chronic taurine supplementation ameliorates oxidative stress and Na+ K+ ATPase impairment in the retina of diabetic rats. Di Leo MA, Santini SA, Cercone S, Lepore D, Gentiloni Silveri N, Caputo S, Greco AV, Giardina B, Franconi F, Ghirlanda G.
40. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Jan;20(1):23-7. The protective effect of taurine against thioacetamide hepatotoxicity of rats. Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Kanbagli O, Balkan J, Cevikbas U, Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M.
41. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Sep;40(9):1016-9. Response of liver antioxidant system to taurine in rats fed high fructose diet. Nandhini AT, Balakrishnan SD, Anuradha CV.
42. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1231-3. Taurine treatment reduces hepatic lipids and oxidative stress in chronically ethanol-treated rats. Balkan J, Kanbagli O, Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M.
43. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Jun;280(6):G1274-9. Role of taurine in preventing acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury in the rat. Waters E, Wang JH, Redmond HP, Wu QD, Kay E, Bouchier-Hayes D.
44. J Hypertens. 2002 Nov;20(11):2269-74. The protective effects of taurine against renal damage by salt loading in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Chiba Y, Ando K, Fujita T.
45. Chemotherapy. 2002 Mar;48(1):42-8. Protection effects of Taurine supplementation against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Saad SY, Al-Rikabi AC.
46. Endoscopy. 2000 Apr;32(4):294-9. Gastric mucosal damage caused by monochloramine in the rat and protective effect of taurine: endoscopic observation through gastric fistula. Kodama M, Tsukada H, Ooya M, Onomura M, Saito T, Fukuda K, Nakamura H, Taniguchi T, Tominaga M, Hosokawa M, Fujita J, Seino Y.
47. Toxicology. 2001 Oct 30;167(3):173-80. Effect of taurine on toxicity of cadmium in rats. Hwang DF, Wang LC.
48. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998 Mar;36(3):239-44. Effect of taurine on toxicity of copper in rats. Hwang DF, Wang LC, Cheng HM.
49. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001 Nov;41(4):397-402. Antioxidant effect of taurine against lead-induced oxidative stress. Gurer H, Ozgunes H, Saygin E, Ercal N.
50. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000 Jul;38(7):585-91. Effect of taurine on toxicity of oxidized fish oil in rats. Hwang DF, Hour JL, Cheng HM.
51. Amino Acids. 2002;22(2):187-98. An investigation on skin wound healing in mice with a taurine-chitosan gel formulation. Degim Z, Celebi N, Sayan H, Babul A, Erdogan D, Take G.
52. Amino Acids. 2002;23(4):441-5. Effects of taurine on polymorphonuclear phagocytosis activity in burned patients. Farriol M, Venereo Y, Rossello J, Gomez P, Palao R, Orta X, Segovia-Silvestre T.
53. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Aug;121(2):354-61. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration. Janeke G, Siefken W, Carstensen S, Springmann G, Bleck O, Steinhart H, Hoger P, Wittern KP, Wenck H, Stab F, Sauermann G, Schreiner V, Doering T.
54. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Jul 1;62(1):29-39. Dietary taurine manipulations in aged male Fischer 344 rat tissue: taurine concentration, taurine biosynthesis, and oxidative markers. Eppler B, Dawson R Jr.
55. Mech Ageing Dev. 1999 Feb 1;107(1):73-91. Effects of dietary taurine supplementation or deprivation in aged male Fischer 344 rats. Dawson R Jr, Liu S, Eppler B, Patterson T.
56. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;526:277-83. Dietary taurine intake and serum taurine levels of women on Jeju Island. Kim ES, Kim JS, Yim MH, Jeong Y, Ko YS, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Nakatsuka S, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, Shimbo S, Ikeda M.
57. High Alt Med Biol. 2000 Summer;1(2):105-10. Mechanisms of taurine antihypoxic and antioxidant action. Mankovskaya IN, Serebrovskaya TV, Swanson RJ, Vavilova GL, Kharlamova ON.
58. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003 Sep 26;226(2):195-202. Taurine: new implications for an old amino acid. Schuller-Levis GB, Park E.
59. Am J Hypertens. 2003 Aug;16(8):673-80. Effects of taurine and enalapril on kidney function of the hypertensive glucose-intolerant rat. Mozaffari MS, Miyata N, Schaffer SW.
60. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003 Aug;14(8 Suppl 3):S250-3. Effects of antioxidants in diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Koya D, Hayashi K, Kitada M, Kashiwagi A, Kikkawa R, Haneda M.
 
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